A Bibliography of the Grand Canyon and the Lower Colorado River. Internet edition. Compiled and edited by Earle E. Spamer. Internet edition contributors Richard D. Quartaroli and Daniel F. Cassidy. Third ed., Bibliography of the Grand Canyon and the Lower Colorado River. (1st ed., 1981, Grand Canyon Natural History Association Monograph 2; 2nd ed., 1990, Grand Canyon Natural History Association Monograph 8, with Supplement 1 to Monograph 8, 1993.)

Copyright © 2000 by Grand Canyon Association
P.O. Box 399
Grand Canyon, Arizona 86023

Copyright applies to the textual content of essays and other text files and to each of the 34 parts of the bibliography. Replication or redistribution of individual screen images, or the contents of individual screens, whether electronically or as a printed document, is permitted with proper acknowledgement of source. Grand Canyon Association does not claim copyright over the original compilation of bibliographical citations, which remains solely the property of the compiler and editor, Earle E. Spamer.

This edition is compiled for distribution and use in the electronic medium known as the "Internet". It is posted on Grand Canyon Association's Web site, managed by Canyon WebWorks. Updates and revisions will be made irregularly.

All text and bibliography files prepared by Earle Spamer. File conversions and search functions created by Canyon WebWorks, Flagstaff, Arizona,

This text new for the Internet edition.


Grand Canyon Natural History Association Monograph 2

Bibliography of the Grand Canyon and the Lower Colorado River; 1540–1980. Compiled by Earle E. Spamer with George H. Billingsley, William J. Breed, Robert C. Euler and Grace Keroher.

Copyright © 1981 by the Grand Canyon Natural History Association
ISBN 0-938216-14-7
Library of Congress Number 81-81457
Editorial: T. J. Priehs, Rose Houk
Production: T. J. Priehs, John C. O'Brien, Earl Hatfield, Sandy Davidson
Lithography: Classic Printers, Prescott, Arizona
Cover photograph: Dick Arentz

Copyright and production information originally published in Grand Canyon Natural History Association Monograph 2, p. 2. One thousand copies were printed. One printing only. This volume was typeset from typewritten copy. It was later retyped again by the compiler into a computerized file in order to create the 2nd edition, but no electronic copy of this volume survives.

Grand Canyon Natural History Association Monograph 8

Bibliography of the Grand Canyon and the Lower Colorado River; from 1540. Compiled by Earle E. Spamer with contributions by George H. Billingsley, William J. Breed, Robert C. Euler, Dorothy A. House, Grace Keroher, Valerie Meyer, Richard Quartaroli and Lawrence E. Stevens. Foreword by Louise M. Hinchliffe.

Published by
Grand Canyon Natural History Association
P.O. Box 399, Grand Canyon, AZ 86023

Copyright © 1990 by the Grand Canyon Natural History Association
ISBN 0-938216-37-6
Library of Congress Number 90-82533

Second edition. The first edition, Bibliography of the Grand Canyon and the Lower Colorado River, 1540-1980, was published in 1981 as Grand Canyon Natural History Association Monograph 2 (ISBN 0-938216-14-7, LC No. 81-81457).

Editorial: Pam Frazier
Page Composition: Earle Spamer
Photo Selection and Layout: Pam Frazier
Printing and Collating: Whitehall Company, Wheeling, Illinois
Microfiche Production: Comgraphix, Phoenix, Arizona
Computer Diskette Production: Star-Byte, Inc., Hatfield, Pennsylvania

Bibliographic Information: This edition is produced in three versions: loose-leaf, microfiche, and computer diskette. The loose-leaf version is set in Times Roman and is printed on acid-free archival paper. The text and page images were compiled through WordPerfect 5.0 word processing software. Camera-ready pages for the loose-leaf and microfiche versions were printed through QMS JetScript page description software, which uses the Adobe Systems Inc. PostScript page description language, to a Hewlett-Packard LaserJet Series II printer. The microfiche version is produced on six fiche cards each with 60 frames. The computer diskette version provides the text in ASCII format; it is issued on five 5.25-inch, double-sided, double-density diskettes. (The use of registered trademarks or brand names does not imply any specific product endorsement by the publisher or author.) Production run for first release of this edition: 1,000 loose-leaf volumes, 25 microfiche sets, 25 sets of computer diskettes. Published October, 1990.

Cover Illustration: "The Heart of Marble Canyon." From Powell, John Wesley, The Canyons of the Colorado: Meadville, Pennsylvania, Flood and Vincent, The Chatauqua-Century Press, 1895 (p. 210 of the 1961 facsimile reprinting, The Exploration of the Colorado River and Its Canyons, Dover Publications, Inc., New York).

Copyright and production information originally published in Grand Canyon Natural History Association Monograph 8, p. ii. One printing only.

Grand Canyon Natural History Association Monograph 8, Supplement 1

Bibliography of the Grand Canyon and the Lower Colorado River; from 1540. Supplement 1. Compiled by Earle E. Spamer with Daniel F. Cassidy and John Irwin.

Published by
Grand Canyon Natural History Association
P.O. Box 399, Grand Canyon, AZ 86023

Copyright © 1993 by Grand Canyon Natural History Association
ISBN 0-938216-47-3
Library of Congress Number 93-70396
First Printing 1993

Editorial: Pam Frazier
Page Composition: Earle Spamer
Printing and Collating: Whitehall Company, Wheeling, Illinois
Microfiche Production: Jackie Davis and Comgraphix, Phoenix, Arizona
Computer Diskette Production: Star-Byte, Inc., Hatfield, Pennsylvania

Bibliographic Information: Grand Canyon Natural History Association Monograph 8, Supplement 1 (1992), published March 1993. GCNHA Monograph 8 was originally published in 1990 (see p. ii). This supplement is produced in three versions: loose-leaf, microfiche, and computer diskette. The loose-leaf version is set in Times Roman and is printed on acid-free archival paper. The text and page images were compiled through WordPerfect 5.0 word processing software. Camera-ready pages for the loose-leaf and microfiche versions were printed through PostScript page description software to a Hewlett-Packard LaserJet Series IIID printer. The microfiche version is produced on 3 fiche cards each with 60 frames. The computer diskette version is in ASCII format; it is issued on two 5.25-inch, double-sided, double-density diskettes. (The use of registered trademarks or brand names does not imply any specific product endorsement by the publisher or author.) Production run for first release of this Supplement: 1,000 loose-leaf sets, 25 microfiche sets, 50 sets of computer diskettes.

Copyright and production information originally published in Grand Canyon Natural History Association Monograph 8, page ii-2. One printing only.


This bibliography, nearly from its beginning, has been the beneficiary of contributors. Without them the product would not be as full as it is now. This is not to mean that the present bibliography is comprehensive. As I note in the introductory material, this is impossible. All that I can hope is to provide the most comprehensive compilation possible, and to keep working at expanding and refining it to meet the needs of future users.

Of course, the earlier editions of the bibliography (see Copyright and Production Information for All Editions and Printings) have contributed directly to the Internet edition, even though the present edition is completely revised and re-edited. So the earlier contributing compilers of these editions must be reacknowledged first: George H. Billingsley, William J. Breed, Daniel F. Cassidy, Robert C. Euler, John Irwin, Grace Keroher, and Valerie Meyer. I also bring the reader's attention to my earlier acknowledgments, which are included below in Prefaces and Acknowledgements to Earlier Editions.

The second edition included invited introductory essays by Robert C. Euler, Louise M. Hinchliffe, Dorothy A. House, Valerie Meyer, Richard Quartaroli, and Lawrence E. Stevens. The Internet edition has benefited directly from large numbers of contributions, comments, and advice from Richard D. Quartaroli and Daniel F. Cassidy, and they are more appropriately acknowledged on the title-page (or opening screen) as contributors.

However, there also are many other people who have contributed single items, or just a few, each of whom has advanced the bibliography. Some of the citations contributed by these interested people were already known to the compilers; most, however, were not, and in fact some of these in turn were from sources which the compilers may never have come upon. And this is precisely how effectual are even the "smallest" of contributors. Over the quarter century that I have been working on this bibliography, some records of contributors have been kept, and some have been lost either through mishap or negligence. By combing my correspondence and miscellaneous notes, as well as my memory, I shall try to list all of the people who have benefited this bibliography. I thank Stewart Aitchison, Jane Anderson, Stanley S. Beus, Arthur E. Bogan, Nancy Brian, Bryan T. Brown, Greer Chesher, Malcolm D. Clark, Jane P. Davidson, Donald P. Elston, John L. (Larry) England, Leonard X. Finegold, Trevor D. Ford, William B. Gallahger, Diane Boyer, Joseph G. Hall, David Hellyer, Richard Hereford, Al Holland, Dorothy A. House, Peter W. Huntoon, Stephen C. Jett, Edwin D. McKee, Jim I. Mead, Dove Menkes, William H. Mullane, Clifford M. Nelson, Gary Rosenberg, W. A. S. Sarjeant, James Sorauf, Jeff Sorensen, Royal D. Suttkus, Frank Tikalsky, Hugh Torrens, and Ellis L. Yochelson. To you whom I have overlooked I apologize, and I hope that the present product is some tangible reward at least for your kindness.

Librarians have been stalwart, unwitting assistants in the search for publications. While they may not be co-compilers or direct contributors to the bibliography, they have helped track down some of the references that I needed to examine, not always with a complete citation from me. Even in these days when lending institutions balk at the incomplete citation, or query the need to loan a rarer volume, the librarians have always been professionally responsive to the needs of such a large and complicated project such as this. Foremost among them—principally because it has been my host institution since 1973 (though as an employee only for the past 13 years)—is the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Others over the years have been the American Museum of Natural History (New York); the American Philosophical Society (Philadelphia); the Balch Institute for Ethnic Studies (Philadelphia); the Library Company of Philadelphia; the Museum of Northern Arizona (Flagstaff); the New York Public Library; Special Collections and Archives, Cline Library, Northern Arizona University (Flagstaff); the Philadelphia Free Library; Rutgers University (Camden, New Jersey); the libraries of the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia); and (once, in a snowstorm) the library of the Bryn Athyn Church, a Swedenborgian denomination in Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania—and of course last but never least the innumerable lending institutions who participate in interlibrary loan and copying programs.

Compiling a bibliography such as this means far less if it is not distributed for use. Grand Canyon Association (formerly Grand Canyon Natural History Association) has backed the Grand Canyon-Lower Colorado River bibliography for 20 years. They are responsible for the evolution of this product, from a skinny, perfect-bound, plain black paper-wrap book; to a "metallic mauve"(!) loose-leaf binder quickly stuffed with an unexpectedly large "Supplement 1", complemented by copies released also on microfiche and as ASCII-text files on computer diskettes; finally to a wholly paperless electronic version with searching functions. Some 20 years have passed now; those who have participated in the production process of what now is three editions are Pam Frazier, Rose Houk, Lisa Madsen, Faith Marcovecchio, L. Greer Price, T. J. Priehs, and Sandra Scott.

Other Grand Canyon National Park personnel who have provided assistance over the years include John C. O'Brien and Sara Stebbins.

And of course, the Internet edition would have been impossible without the design and conversion expertise of Jeff Kay and Jeff Dillon at Canyon WebWorks (Flagstaff).

Thank you.


December 1999

Prefaces and Acknowledgments to Earlier Editions by Earle E. Spamer

Preface to 1981 Edition

In the Autumn of 1974, as a student studying geology, I became aware of the absence of a bibliography of the geology of the Grand Canyon region. Wishing one for my own use, I set about compiling the bibliography. Time and again, however, I came across references that did not deal strictly with Grand Canyon geology, but on other aspects of Grand Canyon science and history. My love for old books and journals led me also to the wonderful 19th-Century popular articles about the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River.

At one point—just when, I no longer remember—I decided to compile a bibliography on all subjects about the Grand Canyon. The present work is the result; but, had I known beforehand of the tremendous amount of literature on the subject, and the time that I would have to devote to this project, I doubt if I would have pursued the task.

If the number of articles and books that have been written about the Grand Canyon is an indication, the Canyon has a spectacular influence on the human mind and spirit. Exclamations and superlatives—even exaggerations—are the general order. The effect on man has remained the same over the years, but man's effect on the Canyon has changed. We have only to witness America's siege of the National Parks to appreciate the tenuous balance of preservation and utilization. The Grand Canyon is one of the more fortunate parks, though. Too wild and too abrupt to permit passage by most of the visitors who come to its edges, the delicate ecology of the Inner Canyon is strained by the relative few who do venture beneath the rims, or who travel down the Colorado River. Over the decades, the evidence of increasing popularity and decreasing natural quality is all too clearly seen in the changing themes of articles written about the Canyon. With care, reason, and sacrifice, man's continuing degradation of the Inner Canyon wilderness can be arrested.

The Grand Canyon is a classic geologic locality. It stands to reason, then, that the largest section of this bibliography is devoted to geology. For the benefit of the stratigrapher, sources on the stratigraphic continuity of the Canyon's rock formations are included, as well as sources on regional tectonics and geophysics. I hope this expansion will be more help than hindrance to those students and professionals who use this work.

In Part 3 (geology), the user will note that I am not the sole compiler. In 1978, when I was completing the first draft of the bibliography, the Department of Geology of the Museum of Northern Arizona, in Flagstaff, contacted me about my work. I learned that they, too, were completing a bibliography of Grand Canyon geology that had been started by Grace Keroher, of the U.S. Geological Survey, and later continued by George Billingsley and William J. Breed, of the Museum. I was subsequently offered coauthorship of the bibliography if my work could be incorporated with the Museum's. Since then, I have added from the Museum's bibliography the geology references that I had missed. The difference between the two bibliographies is that the Museum's is restricted to the geology of the Canyon-proper. The Museum's bibliography remains unpublished at this time.

As for the rest of the bibliography, while it has been mostly a single-handed effort on my part, certain people have provided invaluable help. I wish to sincerely thank Louise M. Hinchliffe, Grand Canyon Natural History Association; Dorothy M. House, Museum of Northern Arizona; and the library staff at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

The Research Library at Grand Canyon National Park is a rich source of Grand Canyon material. The Grand Canyon library is unfortunately unable to provide copies nor loan their holdings, but free use by researchers can be arranged by appointment at Grand Canyon.

Some references in this bibliography, by nature of their subjects, had to be listed in more than one section. However, fewer than 40 I believe have been so listed, and the size of the bibliography is not exaggerated by redundant listing.

A jump in total references appears in the two decades of the 1920s and 1930s. "Grand Canyon Nature Notes" was published at the Park from 1926 to 1935. Many of these articles offer a brief and informal look at Grand Canyon happenings during this time, and have a rather folksy tone. This is especially apparent in Part 4 (biology and ecology). The user of this bibliography—in particular the scientific researcher—should be aware that the gold mine in 1920s-1930s references is illusionary. The many "Nature Notes" articles do make fun reading, though, for anyone interested in the Canyon.

Each user of the bibliography will have a different task in hand. I have tried to make this list exhaustive, and I can only apologize to any authors whose works I have overlooked, and for errors that may have slipped past. I would like to have these oversights brought to my attention. Likewise, constructive criticism and suggestions for future supplements will be most welcome.


July 4, 1980

Originally published in Grand Canyon Natural History Association Monograph 2, p. 3

Preface to 1990 Edition

Without a doubt, the Grand Canyon is the sublime spectacle of nature. I am biased, of course; it would be silly to promote any other place within a bibliography of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River. But I must take note that the Grand Canyon is almost always referred to as the Grand Canyon—there is no other. It is of equal rank with such mammoth geographic features as the Himalayas, the Alps, the Andes, and the Sahara. Other defiles have attempted to compare with the Grand Canyon—the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone and the Grand Canyon of Pennsylvania come to mind. Each of these names invokes an image of some sort of grandness; that was the intention of the people who named them. These features are indeed grand on their own scales, in the settings where they are found. There are canyons on Mars, too, that dwarf our Grand Canyon, but their geology is different, and they lack the aesthetics of the grand sculpturing and colors exhibited by the Grand Canyon's walls, buttes, and side canyons. The Grand Canyon has no comparison.

We love the Grand Canyon for its natural beauty alone. Native Americans have lived in the Canyon for perhaps 4,000 years, but the early inhabitants no doubt had more practical reasons for living there. Early transient foreigners like the missionaries and trappers of the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries found the Canyon more or less just in the way. The first visitors, a small party of Spanish conquistadors, reached the South Rim 450 years ago, in September of 1540; they were not overwhelmed, according to the reports that survive. Of the early American visitors, only trapper James Ohio Pattie wrote about the Canyon, in an edited journal published in 1831, but even there the report is sketchy and is devoid of enthusiasm.

No purposeful attempt to explore the Canyon was made until the middle of the nineteenth century. By then the feeling was different: even the first of these explorers felt that they had to reach the Canyon. In 1851, from atop a mountain near present-day Flagstaff, Arizona, naturalist Samuel W. Woodhouse became the first scientist to sight the Grand Canyon when he caught a glimpse of the distant North Rim. He would have been the first to reach the Canyon had the Sitgreaves Expedition not abandoned the attempt because of ailing men and pack animals. Still, they knew it was there, and they had tried to get there. In 1858, the geologist John Strong Newberry, attached to the Ives Expedition, became the first scientist to reach the Canyon and descended into its depths along Diamond Creek. The first bit of water through the Grand Canyon publishing mill was about to trickle.

The report of the Ives Expedition, published in 1861, was an epic publication; it is required reading for any avid fan of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River. It was the only detailed publication about the Canyon available to John Wesley Powell when he planned his first exploring expedition down the Colorado River in 1869. That expedition was sensational enough that the newspapers followed its progress and even printed uncorroborated reports of disaster and death. So sensational was that trip, and Powell's second trip in 1871-1872, that he was encouraged to compile a journal of the trips that was published by the Smithsonian Institution in 1875. This, too, is required reading. Aside from a couple of minor papers published in scientific journals, Ives' and Powell's chronicles were to that time the only publications about the Grand Canyon; but that soon changed.

In 1880, geologists Clarence Edward Dutton and Charles Doolittle Walcott independently explored different areas of the Grand Canyon. Walcott published the first of many papers that drew upon Grand Canyon geology, and in 1882 Dutton's monumental Tertiary History of the Grand Cañon District was printed. Although Dutton's monograph was scholarly in scope, the descriptive passages about the Canyon were so delightfully written that they have often been quoted in general books about the Canyon and the Colorado River. Dutton's book, with its accompanying Atlas, was with Powell's chronicle, decisive in inspiring the world's fascination with the Canyon. The floodgates of publication at last opened.

Tourism quickly caught on at the Grand Canyon, despite the difficulties in reaching the chasm in the earliest years. Prospectors in the Canyon turned proprietors, opening crude hotels along the South Rim, catering to fortunate, hardy tourists and visiting scientists from around the world. By the turn of the twentieth century, the Canyon was easily accessible; each year more people streamed to its edge. The ultimate experience was to descend into the Canyon astride mules or horses, led if they were lucky by Canyon pioneers such as the colorful Captain John Hance—Interpreter General of the Grand Canyon, the man who admitted to having dug out the chasm!

They came in torrents—tourists and publications alike. The Victorian-era fascination with distant places and different people called for publications that took the reader to them, a particularly useful means of travel for those who were unable to make the trip. The Grand Canyon, its pioneers, and the Native Americans of the region were glorious in the literature. The effervescent passages, written with typical nineteenth century eloquence and early twentieth century self-fancied authority, promoted the Canyon region as a mysterious, magical, magnificent place, a place visited only by the fortunate. No one was allowed to forget the Grand Canyon.

More and more publications barreled from presses. Photographers, artists, and writers of all sorts portrayed the Canyon and the mighty Colorado. Pamphlets and brochures, booklets and souvenir volumes rippled from the promotional offices of the Santa Fe Railroad, and from the first real bastion of Southwestern organized tourism, the Fred Harvey Company. And after 1919, when the Canyon was made a national park, the National Park Service began offering its own brochures, pamphlets, leaflets, and booklets—everything from assemblages of pictures, to interpretive texts, to lists of rules and regulations. The American fascination with the Southwest was hard caught by the 1920s. Then the publications really started coming.

The public's untiring drive to participate in the Grand Canyon adventure created a ready market for anything about the Canyon. Volumes of popular material have been produced to meet this demand, but there is one recurring theme: that the Grand Canyon is indescribable. Authors and illustrators have for a century agreed that no words or illustration can justly portray the Canyon, but one has only to leaf through these pages to see how this argument has failed. Even one short poem about the Canyon, by Eric Kelly, is entitled, "The Inexpressible." From all the Grand Canyon literature, it is this one word, Inexpressible, that I select as an abstract of the Grand Canyon bibliography. Indeed, what a fine oxymoron: a bibliography of the inexpressible!

Quietly (insofar as the tourist and general reader is concerned), a lot more about the Canyon and the River is published in the scientific literature. The entire Grand Canyon region is clearly a geologist's paradise, and it should be no surprise that geology is the most-written subject about the Canyon, but other areas of science have taken deep interest in this area. A century ago, for example, C. Hart Merriam developed the concept of "life zones" in the area between the San Francisco Peaks and the Grand Canyon, the basic tenet of ecological zonation as a function of changes in altitude. Today the Canyon is, unfortunately, also a case study of the environmental impacts of large dams on the Colorado River and of power plants on the pristine quality of the air. The region and its people are important to anthropologists and archaeologists. Many sheltered and open archaeological sites are found on the rims and throughout the Canyon, and areas of cultural significance to Native Americans are present there even today.

With such outstanding popular and scientific spectacles like the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River, and their rich cultural history, all about which so much has been written, it is still a mystery to me why no comprehensive bibliography had been compiled early on. Once begun, though, the process of compilation never ends.

• • • •

In the fifteen or so years that I have been working on the Grand Canyon bibliography, I have been asked many times how this project began and how it is carried out. So, for those who are interested in the history of such things, I should attempt to recall this information. (And I feel that this Preface is the only place I can justify these ramblings.)

This project began simply enough. As a geology student in New Jersey, I made The Pilgrimage in May, 1974. When I arrived at Mather Point in the late afternoon of Memorial Day, I remember being not as impressed with the Canyon as I had expected to be—that is, until I realized that my perspective was all wrong. That evening, on the rim near the Visitors Center, what I thought was only a couple of hundred yards away I realized was more like a mile distant; suddenly, the North Rim fell far back and the bottom dropped far away. I joined the legions of tourists before me. And I can personally appreciate the confusion of perspective that also affected the first foreigners to visit the canyon 450 years ago: what the Spanish visitors believed to be small boulders on the Canyon slopes turned out upon inspection to be blocks higher than the Tower of Seville.

That fall, back in New Jersey, I had become infatuated enough with the Canyon to want to compile a list of publications about its geology. At Grand Canyon I had purchased a copy of the new book, Geology of the Grand Canyon, edited by Breed and Roat, so I sat down with it and copied all the references that were cited therein. In doing so, I realized that there were other, non-geological publications about the Canyon. At that time, I assumed that there were too many things about the Canyon to try to track down everything, and I ignored anything that was not geology—for a while.

One reference led to another, and then to five or ten more—and so it continued. That is the way I compiled most of the references—by searching backwards through the references cited by hundreds of authors before me, then by ploughing through indexes, then by browsing across endless shelves of books in libraries and bookstores (new and used), always looking for undiscovered citations and those invisible suggestions that "feel like" a paper or book might mention the Canyon. Sometimes dozens of references can be listed from one golden trove; other times, one difficult reference in a long day.

Friends and correspondents pass along newly found references, too; I wish I had more such good people. Serendipity also plays as much a role in compiling a bibliography as does hard library work. How often I have found a pertinent reference in a book next to the one I had been looking for.

In a couple of years I had amassed a large file of handwritten cards. Sometime during that period I had a change of heart, and I had begun to write down everything that dealt with the Canyon, whether it was biology, archaeology, popular in nature, or what. This supplementary file still remained in the background, but it grew. I had not intended to do anything with the bibliography; it was something just for my own use because I was unaware of any such compilation being available.

Around 1977 or 1978, I typed up the first of many lists that would comprise a bibliography of Grand Canyon geology, and about that time I first contacted the Museum of Northern Arizona, in Flagstaff, regarding this work. I was put in touch with a young geologist there, George Billingsley (who now works for the U.S. Geological Survey), who sent me devastating news: they, too, were working on a bibliography of Grand Canyon geology. Fortunately for me, their work was on hold for lack of time. After an exchange of correspondence, I received a copy of the MNA version of the geology bibliography, compiled by MNA geologists Billingsley and William J. Breed and Grace Keroher of the U.S. Geological Survey. I merged the two bibliographies and then struck out to follow up on many more new leads into the geological literature.

In the meantime, I also had been rummaging through references and libraries in search of everything about the Grand Canyon. Around 1978, I was able to type up a draft of a Grand Canyon bibliography and then met only dead ends in a couple half-hearted attempts to find a publisher. References continued to accumulate, and new drafts of the bibliography were typed up. In 1980, the Grand Canyon Natural History Association approached me about publishing the bibliography as a volume in their new Monograph series, scholarly publications that were intended to go through but one printing. The result was the 1981 publication of Monograph 2, Bibliography of the Grand Canyon and the Lower Colorado River, 1540-1980.

Fully intending to continue compiling references for the Grand Canyon bibliography, I was naïve enough to believe that they would come in small numbers, that a long time would pass before enough was accumulated to make a second volume worthwhile. I collected copies (photocopies mostly) of many papers and purchased what books I could afford. With an education in geology, I had also entertained the idea of writing an annotated bibliography of Grand Canyon geology, but I was dissuaded because I thought the references too widely spread for one person to easily track. But by 1983 I realized that I had in my files virtually everything about Grand Canyon geology, so began to write an annotated bibliography on the subject. To date, five volumes are the result, published in the Geological Society of America's Microform Publications series.

The general Grand Canyon bibliography continued to grow, partly from new publications but also from many, mostly obscure, references that had eluded me. It was during this time that I discovered that several pre-existing Grand Canyon-Colorado River bibliographies had been prepared by various people during the previous half century or so. Although they all fell short of the scope of GCNHA Monograph 2, virtually all of them had a few choice references to offer toward my bibliography. I prepared informal interim supplements to the bibliography which I distributed to a couple of libraries. I also began to reformat parts of the bibliography, and regretted an early decision to follow one "scientific" style of citation wherein authors' names include only the first initials. By that time, too many citations had been compiled for me to single-handedly relocate; so, unfortunately, many citations still retain the initials. In self-criticism, this frequent absence of given names I regard as the one truly weak aspect of the bibliography.

In the mid-1980s, I began to sound out the Grand Canyon Natural History Association about the prospect of issuing a second volume or a revision of Monograph 2. Encouragement was always forthcoming, but for various good reasons nothing concrete was arranged. Still, the references piled up. In 1989, the GCNHA funded the publication of a complete revision of the bibliography, which I hoped to make a little more interesting than a long, dry list of publications like its predecessor. Some readers may find it surprising that even at this late date the Grand Canyon bibliography did not exist in a computerized format. It was up to me to enter Monograph 2 and all the supplements and corrections onto a computer, which I did late in 1989. With a background also in typesetting and publishing, and with access to appropriate computer equipment, I offered to produce the camera-ready pages for the new volume. After producing samples and working out details with the Association, I began to format the introductions and citations for publication. The disadvantage of doing all my own typing and typography for this volume is that I have no one to blame for errors that may be present. All I ask is that if mistakes are found, please point them out so that they can be corrected in an update. And if a citation is missing, please send it in; already the next update is being compiled.

The physical appearance of the book itself is the fine result of the artistry of the Association's own Pam Frazier. Knowing full well that bibliographies are not exactly fireside reading, I wished to have the volume be something aesthetically interesting. I had attempted to do this through the use of introductions to the various sections, but it was Pam's task to make the book itself presentable. It was her suggestion that the volume be in a loose-leaf format to accommodate updates, and to be available also on microfiche and computer disk for users who prefer those media (although they miss the effect of the binder, tabs, and graphics). The combination is unusual, of course, but we believe entirely appropriate for a research tool like a bibliography. We know, too, that the Grand Canyon and Colorado River aficionado and bibliophile will savor the loose-leaf format as a browser's friend. And for the true bibliographer, specific information on the production of this edition of the bibliography is included on the copyright page.

Lastly, I am delighted to have been able to add to this new volume a Foreword by Louise Hinchliffe, former librarian at the Research Library at Grand Canyon, whose knowledge of the Canyon and its literature is enviable. However, I do question the propriety of her last sentence, in which she mentions my name in the same breath with Roget, Bartlett, and Webster. This is enough to make anyone pause. But my editorial philosophy regards forewords as inviolable, and I am forced to accept the association graciously, even with much hesitation. With no other excuse, I should have exorcised that sentence because, should Louise's prediction come true, my name is bound to be mispronounced!


On the Colorado River
Grand Canyon
May 26 to June 2, 1990

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
June 16, 1990

Originally published in Grand Canyon Natural History Association Monograph 8, pp. vii-x.

Acknowledgments to 1990 Edition

Since 1974, when this bibliography got its start, I have met or corresponded with many people who share a common interest in the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River. Without their contributions, my job would have been not only more difficult, but less interesting. Even though this is a wholly new bibliography, with its own roster of generous contributors, I should also reacknowledge all those who helped make possible the first volume, published by the Grand Canyon Natural History Association in 1981.

I must first express my appreciation to the staffs of the outstanding libraries where I obtained virtually all of my references. The Library of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia was my foremost resource. When I began working on the bibliography I was not then on the staff, but I was treated with the same professional courtesy as though I were. The librarians tolerated innumerable requests for whole cartloads of publications from the stacks, although I suspect that they would have much more appreciated my use of the library if I had been an Academy staff member with stack privileges. (Now I understand and appreciate their work all the more.) But most significantly, through a mutual misunderstanding, graciously set straight long after the fact, I was allowed to withdraw large numbers of publications which I was able to photocopy elsewhere for my own library (although I also spent many long hours at the Academy's copy machine). This remarkable set of circumstances was the one thing which eventually made it possible for me to begin my studies of the Canyon. To the Librarian of the Academy and her kind predecessors and staff, I thank you for unwittingly setting me on this path in life.

The Van Pelt Library at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and various other libraries on campus were important supplementary research sources. Librarians there dutifully tracked down erroneously cited references and helped me deal with difficultly translated abbreviated citations. The East Asia Bibliographer helped locate copies of mis-cited and mistranslated references in Chinese. Elsewhere, the Philadelphia Free Library was a useful source of many indexes and obscure items; the library at Rutgers University was frequently visited; and the New York Public Library generously provided me with photocopies of obscure publications that were in sadly terrible condition due to the ravages of time and paper full of acids.

Louise M. Hinchliffe, formerly with the Research Library at Grand Canyon, and Dorothy A. House, librarian at the Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff, even early on were willing and able contributors to this bibliography. Without their support in the formative years of this project, I would have been left with many unanswered questions regarding publications that I could not get hold of myself. And it should be pointed out here, parenthetically, that after Louise's retirement the Grand Canyon Research Library was rededicated in her name.

Robert C. Euler has been a constant supporter of my work on the Grand Canyon, contributing faithfully and with unfailing interest. He has added significantly to the primary references of the archaeology and Native American sections, thus I feel justified, with thanks to Bob for his permission, to include him as a co-compiler of those sections.

For pointing me toward a tremendous number of geological references, I am grateful to George H. Billingsley and to the Museum of Northern Arizona for permission to merge their unpublished bibliography of Grand Canyon geology with my own.

The late Edwin D. McKee cordially provided me with answers to many questions and even managed to send me copies of page proofs of his 1982 monograph on the Supai Group so that I could complete the first volume of the annotated bibliography of Grand Canyon geology. Through that kindness he also allowed me to maintain currentness in my informal supplements to the general Grand Canyon bibliography. He rests today in the historic Pioneers Cemetery at Grand Canyon. In 1988, the U.S. Board of Geographic Names passed a proposal submitted to them to name McKee Point, on the rim of the Canyon in the Hualapai Indian Reservation west of Grand Canyon Village.

Over the years, many people have benefited this bibliography by providing references and commentary. I wish to express my appreciation to them and to the passers-by who also contributed individual citations. Everyone has helped make this compilation come closer to complete coverage.

I also wish to express my thanks to the boatmen, swampers, and fellow passengers on my first two trips down the Colorado River, in 1989 and 1990. Their knowledge and companionship reaffirmed by interest in the Canyon, its magnificent river, and the wonderfully interesting people who work and travel there. My first trip was with the 28th International Geological Congress. Running the river with geologists from around the world, conducted by geologists whose combined experience was of a caliber rarely met on trips through the Grand Canyon, and guided by boat crews whose enthusiasm never waned, provided me with some of the most grand impressions I may ever have of the Canyon. I also must thank Marc Smith for allowing me my first opportunity to work on the River—a remarkably fulfilling experience from which I learned much—a trip which incidentally helped me complete this edition of the bibliography. And my thanks also go out to all those who keep the spirit of the Canyon alive, and to those who have cared enough to do something about its problems in the face of sometimes overwhelming odds.

Pam Frazier of the Grand Canyon Natural History Association has been a welcome, friendly voice on the phone during the production phase of this volume. Without her advice and expertise in publication production, this book not only would not look the way it does—nor work as well as it does—but it would not exist. It would be only a manuscript. And special note must be made that the facilities for the production of camera-ready pages for this volume were generously made available by the Department of Malacology of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

Finally, I wish to thank all the authors who took the time to write introductions to various parts of this bibliography. In contrast to the rather Spartan lists of publications, the introductions provide more refreshing, unique views of the Canyon, its river, its people, its literature, and its history. It was my intention to leave the content of the introductions to each author, thus providing a range of writings as diverse as the contents of this bibliography. But I could not have presented anything of this magnitude without everyone's help. Thank you.

Originally published in Grand Canyon Natural History Association Monograph 8, pp. xi-xi. (Corrected here.)

Preface to Supplement 1 [1993]

The very fact that this supplement was in preparation before the Grand Canyon Natural History Association even received the camera-ready pages for the first release of this monograph, is a testimonial to two things. First, unfortunately, is the compiler's fallibility. Many items that should have been found on the first round continue to come to light. Second, the Canyon continues to be described in every format imaginable.

In comment on the first item, readers will note that two new contributors appear on the title-page to this supplement. Both John Irwin and Dan Cassidy have contributed significantly to many parts of this supplement—in particular, the parts on General Works and on Audio-Visual items. John works professionally as a librarian, and Dan is a dedicated collector of printed Canyoniana. They provide an ample illustration that bibliographical compilation has no defined boundaries. It shows that resources can be found not only in the library, bookstore, and so-called special collections, but that the private collector's personal library—truly a special collection—can hold citable treasures. This is precisely equatable to the value of the work of amateurs in paleontology and astronomy, two sciences that lack the pretense of some other fields that reprimand the non-professional for supposing that she or he can make worthwhile contributions.

This shows that the Canyon is bigger than any one compiler, and that the art of bibliographical citation continues headlong into a new era, one in which there are "bibliographical" media that our grandparents, or our parents—or even ourselves in younger years—could not have imagined. Even two or three years ago, when the new edition to the bibliography was being prepared, it was someone shortsighted of me to place audio-visual works within the "Miscellaneous" section. At that time, I was not aware of the huge number of audio-visual works already available even before the advent of videotapes for the home, and compact disks. Indeed, this supplement cites the first compact disk in the bibliography, and I express fear that the use of the word "bibliography" is by now inappropriate or should defer to redefinition. And I wonder, now, what unimagined medium will be available in years to come.

Supplement 1 contains citations that were found through August, 1992. However, this does not indicate that the bibliography is comprehensive to that date. As with the first release of this monograph, the next supplement no doubt will receive its first entry even before these camera-ready pages are in the mail.

I wish to express my thanks to many interested contributors who continue to send citations and photocopies. And I also thank many "passers-by" who, knowing my preoccupation with this project that cannot end, bring single, interesting items to my attention.

Finally, thanks are extended to the Department of Malacology, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, for making available the equipment to produce the camera-ready pages for this supplement.


September 1, 1992

Originally published in Grand Canyon Natural History Association Monograph 8, page x-1. (Corrected here.) N.B.: Supplement 1 was the only supplement published. The Internet edition supersedes Monograph 8.