Welcome to the Internet edition of the Bibliography of the Grand Canyon and the Lower Colorado River. It is completely revised, re-edited, and greatly expanded from the previous two editions, published by Grand Canyon Association. Its appearance marks the 25th anniversary of the beginning of the Grand Canyon–Colorado River bibliographical project in 1974.
The purpose of the bibliography is to collate information on printed publications, audio-visual works, and electronic products that relate to the Grand Canyon and the lower Colorado River. It includes everything that (in whole or in part) pertains to, or mentions in context, these areas; thus these lists are part bibliography and part index. It is the most comprehensive bibliography for any unit of the National Park System of the United States.
The bibliographical project is built around a standard bibliography that, in the Internet edition, is electronically searchable. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories by subject. It is the only categorized reference list about the Grand Canyon and the lower Colorado River.
The following topics are included below:
INTRODUCTIONby Earle E. Spamer
This edition of the Grand Canyon–Lower Colorado River bibliography is different from an edition in the usual sense because, for the first time, this bibliography breaks the binds of the medium of print. It is a leap of faith by everyone involved—compilers, publisher, and users. Most striking is the fact that there is one location for this bibliography, accessible by all who have access to the Internet. Each user will have a specific purpose for looking at it; few will see it in its entirety. The ways in which this bibliography will be used, compared to its predecessors in the print medium, will be a dramatically new experience. There will always be the need to browse, of course; many people prefer to work that way. It is still the best way to locate everything of special and peculiar interest. But this edition will provide users with the ability to search and extract electronically, something previously impossible using the "hard copy" editions.
A bibliography includes whatever its compilers wish to include. Francis Farquhar's 1953 gem, The Books of the Colorado River and the Grand Canyon: A Selective Bibliography is celebrated—even revered—by bibliophiles of the Southwest. But there really is no such thing as a "selective bibliography," only an incomplete one. Conversely, there is no such thing as a comprehensive one; there is always something more to add or to elaborate upon.
This bibliography began in 1974 as a short list on the subject of Grand Canyon geology; it grew to be the present product. My decision to exclude the upper Colorado River basin is based entirely on my personal preferences and the limits of my experience. I know far less of the Upper Basin; moreover, I have not traveled much there. But within the region that it does focus upon, the topical coverage is nearly without bounds. Books, articles, and other items wholly about these subjects, and those merely of passing interest, all make their ways into this bibliography. The absolute criterion is that they must in some way make mention of the Grand Canyon or the lower Colorado River, in any context, however brief. This is partly a bibliography of subject-specific items, and partly an index.
I have believed for years that one cannot presuppose what is "most useful" to the user of a reference work such as this. The product must at least strive for absolute completeness, which means scouring everything for whole and included information. This also means that everything is added without regard to an artificial evaluation of either scholarly or practical merit. I do not feel that it is the purpose of this bibliography to selectively omit anything, because it may prove to be of value—for reasons unknown or unimagined—to someone in the future.
In the matter of a disclaimer, this bibliography is always a work in progress. In a few places, informational parts of a citation include an underscore, __________, thus. This means that the information is missing. Nevertheless, enough critical information is present to warrant including the citation in this bibliography. The compilers were not able to see the complete information either because the document was not available or it was an imperfect copy.
Many publications are not cited herein; some users will recognize this. However, the omissions are not matters of exclusion. The limits of exploration by the compilers go only so far. If something is not cited herein, and it clearly should be, we had not seen it. Users who know of more things that should be listed here have the advantage over us, and we ask to be informed.
The principal focus of this bibliography is the region of the Grand Canyon of Arizona, and the Colorado River from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, to the river delta in the Gulf of California, Mexico. The Grand Canyon region is taken to be the physiographic canyon and its surrounding landscape, approximately from a line north of the San Francisco Peaks northward to the Utah border, and from the eastern end of the canyon westward to the Grand Wash Cliffs. The lower Colorado River is taken to be the physical river corridor from Glen Canyon Dam to the delta, as well as the surrounding landscape beginning at Lake Mead and continuing southward with the river. These are admittedly artificial constraints, yet in terms of geography there are no simple (or clearly defined) limits. These are the limits established for this bibliography.
In using the Arizona-Utah state boundary as a northward limit I arbitrarily use a political boundary for a bibliography that otherwise has geographic limits. I do this also to include the entirety of the Arizona Strip (the portion of northern Arizona that extends northward from the Colorado River to the Utah state line), which has as much a historical relationship with Utah as it does the Grand Canyon. It is bounded on the north by a political boundary, on its east and south by a physiographic boundary, and on its west by largely coincident physiographic and political boundaries.
I also realize that the physiographic Lower Colorado River Basin, and by convention the political lower Colorado River, begins near the U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic gauge at Mile 0.0 immediately downstream from Lees Ferry. However, in that Glen Canyon Dam serves as a barrier both to the river and to the coverage of this bibliography, and that the river downstream from it is now amputated from the body of Glen Canyon, I bibliographically extend the lower Colorado up to the dam. What is left of Glen Canyon between the dam and Lees Ferry is its history. Despite the definitions of administrative boundaries, it is effectively no more a part of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area than Lake Powell is a part of Grand Canyon National Park. Lees Ferry as a geomorphological crossroads is tangibly linked to the history of the entire Southwest, but now it is only at the end of a road, straddling the Glen Canyon and Grand Canyon political units. Today, it serves as the sole entrance to the bottom of Glen Canyon and the start of one of the world's most remarkable natural and historical whitewater routes, through Marble and Grand Canyons. The distinctions of history and geography have been hopelessly muddled here. The best example of this, perhaps, was an error in a large brown highway sign I saw on the eastbound side of U.S. 89A, west of Marble Canyon. For a brief time in 1997, until it was corrected, it alerted travelers to "Grand Canyon National Recreation Area" (see Equusasinus, 1999).
At the western end of the Grand Canyon, while the physiographic canyon is dramatically concluded by the Grand Wash Cliffs, Lake Mead sneaks into the lower part of the canyon, stealing the river's historic identity there, too. Decades ago it stilled some of the Colorado's more famous rapids. Lake Mead National Recreation Area fortunately does not also steal the lower Grand Canyon; its administrative boundary is decisively if not necessarily permanently marked by a buoy in the river channel. Nearby, another historic river crossing is muted. The spot where "Pearce Ferry" slides tiredly into the warm waters of the lake does not mark the historic ferry site, now drowned beneath the waters of Lake Mead.
The Colorado River through the Grand Canyon—as well as its history and science—thus is pegged by two of the loneliest places in the country, places that only historians and bibliographers could love.
Three principal resource areas are excluded in this bibliography.
Newspapers are omitted because there are articles in all major, and many minor, newspapers. In a few instances, a newspaper is cited if an article had been reprinted later in another periodical; the original source is acknowledged in a comment at the end of the citation. Special-interest newspaper-format periodicals are included, however—for example, High Country News. Weekly or other such newspaper magazines are also included in the bibliography—for example Flare, from the Arizona Daily Sun.
Internet resources are omitted because, at this time, the resources cannot be guaranteed to survive indefinitely, in the manner of printed publications catalogued into libraries.
Manuscripts are omitted because they exist as single copies in one location. They were never intended to be considered as a publication, nor gray literature. Some manuscript citations that had been in previous editions of this bibliography have been removed. But for the purpose of preserving these otherwise important reference sources, they have been placed in a separate, now inactive, part of the bibliography, Part 34. Miscellaneous Manuscripts.
The bibliography is now divided into 34 parts by subject. This is significantly more expansive than the 12 parts of the 1990 edition, Grand Canyon Natural History Association Monograph 8. The 34 parts are organized now into more logical groups, as shown in the Table of Contents. This was done partly in response to specific requests from users of the previous editions, and partly on my own initiative. For example, it seemed to make sense, from the standpoint of a researcher interested in a specific subject, to segregate citations about hydrogeology from the rest of the geological citations, because of the tremendously important work being conducted in the Colorado River corridor through the Grand Canyon. Some parts are exceedingly brief—that is the nature of the subject—while others are extravagantly rich with citations.
Creating 34 parts from the previous dozen may seem to be counterproductive by the users who search the entire bibliography for a particular author or journal title (to select two examples). In the print medium this would be true. But the utility of the search functions of this Internet edition eliminate problems such as this; all occurrences of the search string, from across the entire bibliography, can be returned. The electronic medium is not perfect; some searches will yield false returns because the search string just happens to be present in another context from the one intended. These kinds of problems are bound to improve with time and with advances in technology. In the meantime, they are usually little more than annoyances.
The "Miscellaneous" part of the original bibliography has been eliminated. As well-meaning as is any collection of "miscellanea", a list composed of them will be overlooked; or, when it is examined, it is looked at in a moment of desperation—an afterthought or a last resort. Most of the citations which appeared in the several subsections of this part of the bibliography have been transferred to Part 2. General because, after all, they are general in nature.
Other subsections of Monograph 8, such as the "Special Section" appended to several parts of the bibliography, or the separately paginated "Bibliographies" and "Reviews" sections, now have their own enumerated parts of the bibliography. Of course they should have been organized that way also in Monograph 8. But recall that Monograph 8 is a loose-leaf product, so designed to accommodate supplements (of which one was published, in 1993) that continued the pagination of each part or section. We attempted to keep the number of dividing tabs to a minimum, a matter of economy for the most part. This failed to significantly reduce the thickness of the pages inside the binder, and by the time "Supplement 1" was published the binder was filled. No one had anticipated so much more would be added to the bibliography so quickly. While plans went ahead to eventually publish a second supplement, it became clear that another binder would be needed. It would create a logistical problem for the hundreds of users who already had copies, and an expense for the publisher. Furthermore, users reported that even with just one supplement the bibliography was becoming unwieldy, with now two places to look instead of one. Thus not only was the prospect of an entirely new, third, edition entertained, but it was going to have to be an edition that could be easily updated and corrected; in other words, an electronic bibliography of some kind. The Internet edition is the result. Depending on the response to this edition, future releases may also include electronic formats which can be delivered or copied in its entirety to the end user.
The Internet edition provides an entirely revised form of citation for this bibliography. Notably, each citation has a unique number, or "citation number", enumerated sequentially within each of the 34 parts. The objective of the citation number is to provide a point of reference for all users, now and in the future. The usefulness of citation numbers is already long-demonstrated in standard bibliographical referents in American history, such as those which are cross-listed in this bibliography (and about which more is mentioned below). The citation number is composed of a prefix, corresponding to the part number of the bibliography, and a consecutively numbered suffix for each part.
Cross-Listings to Standard Referents
In the field of bibliography there are many standard referents to which scholars and booksellers, as well as bibliographers, refer. The most common of these relate to the bibliography of American history, or some part of it. These referents usually have the advantage of uniquely enumerating each of the citations, and it is by these numbers that the titles are referred in published literature and correspondence.
The Internet edition of this bibliography cross-lists its citations to several annotated bibliographies; these are Francis P. Farquhar's (1953) The Books of the Colorado River and the Grand Canyon: A Selective Bibliography; David M. Goodman's (1969) Arizona Odyssey; Bibliographic Adventures in Nineteenth-Century Magazines; Wright Howes' (1962) revised, enlarged edition of U.S.iana (1650-1950); a Selective Bibliography in Which Are Described 11,620 Uncommon and Significant Books Relating to the Continental Portion of the United States; Colton Storm's (1968) A Catalogue of the Everett D. Graff Collection of Western Americana; and Henry R. Wagner and Charles L. Camp's 4th edition of The Plains and the Rockies; a Critical Bibliography of Exploration, Adventure and Travel in the American West, 1800-1865. These titles were selected for their renowned authority and wide use, for the special precise and ancillary bibliographical data they convey, and for their annotations.
This bibliography also includes cross-listings to several booksellers' catalogues, viz, Five Quail Books (1987-1999), and Guidon Books (1969). The first two are important references to publications about this region because they are extensively annotated. That by Guidon Books is an important early list of publications relating to this region. That they also list prices provides some added utility as historical documents of econometric bibliography.
Citations in the present bibliography which are cross-indexed to one of these other referents are so listed at the conclusion of the citation. For example, "Farquhar 40" refers to item no. 40 in Farquhar (1953); or "FQ12:25" refers to Five Quail Books Catalogue 12, item no. 25. A complete list of cross-referents and their mnemonic notations appears in Cross-Listings to Other Standard Referents, below.
Cross-Index to 1990 Edition
Citations in the Internet edition have been cross-indexed with the page numbers for comparable citations that had originally appeared in the 1990 edition (Monograph 8). In the print edition each part is separately paginated. A cross-index is indicated by a notation between pointed brackets, thus: >Mon. 8: 1-53<, which in this case means page 1-53 (part 1, page 53). Separately paginated "special sections" that were appended to some parts of the print bibliography are cross-indexed with a notation like >Mon. 8: 1-SS1-2<.
Cross-indexed notations are provided so as to indicate which of the citations in the Internet edition had appeared in the print version of the bibliography. Many of them have been revised, corrected, or otherwise emended in the Internet edition. Users who have need or interest to check on these can thus follow these citations to the appropriate pages in the print edition.
Perhaps of less immediate notice, but even greater usefulness, is the elimination of nearly all abbreviations. The problem of the abbreviated citation in bibliography is well-known. I have discussed some of these problems in a different venue (Spamer et al., 1995, Part 3), but I revalidate those points here. Basically, the abbreviated citation was a convenience of typesetting economy for centuries, if not so much to save space on the printed page then to expedite labor when type was hand-set and redistributed after the job was printed. In electronic media such economy is superfluous. Abbreviations also are now less intuitively obvious. Today, researchers cannot know of, much less be conversant in, the mnemonics of abbreviated citations in fields about which they are less experienced or which they are just entering. All journal titles are spelled out in this edition of the bibliography, as well as are other abbreviations. Only such conventions as "ed." for "editor" or "edition" are retained; each is clear in context and look very strange spelled out.
Suggestions for Continued Work
There is certainly a need for a database of citations organized in such a way that it is a comprehensive index of all pertinent subjects in every publication. Although such organization would be only as powerful as the competency of those who create it and the number of usefully indexed entries, its overall value would be immense. And the present bibliography can serve as a foundation for such a comprehensive work.
A thorough examination of some very pertinent serials is in order. For example, the entire run of Arizona Highways should be examined against this bibliography to list everything that may relate to the Grand Canyon and lower Colorado River. Congressional documents, of which there must be thousands more than listed in this bibliography, need to be added; a daunting task, surely.
Manuscript and archival holdings are tremendously valuable resources. However, because they exist mostly as single copies in one location, they are not as conveniently available as are published materials that can be obtained in a number of places or through inter-library loan services. A separate bibliography of these resources would be a boon to researchers.
Lastly, the bibliography has to be extended to the upper Colorado River basin if there is ever to be a proper bibliography of the Colorado River. Even if it is restricted to the history of the rivers, there is a need for such a compendium of literature.
Why a Bibliography in the Electronic Age?
When Elliott Coues (pronounced "cows") died in 1899, it was in the ending times of an era of scholarship whose practitioners seemed to "know everything". Coues was one of these men whose experiences and capabilities crossed into a number of widely different subject areas. He is best known for his work in ornithology, but in the present bibliography he also is cited for some of his historical treatises on exploration in the American West. His productive energies are clearly shown in lists of his publications. Bibliography was among his scholarly pursuits, yet the sheer volume of it alone could have been a lifetime's work.
The art of bibliography has, particularly in the later part of the twentieth century, been viewed as a petty indulgence. It is a dramatic shift of opinion from Coues' time, when a bibliography was a staple among reference tools. The stigma which a bibliography bears comes from the fact—in Coues' day as well as today—that it is not "scholarship" in the sense that it may directly contribute insights to problems of historiography, nor is it a means with which to critique scientific results or scholarly interpretations. Only the truly comprehensive bibliography of a broadly recognized field of scholarship (such as Americana) comes close to being recognized today as a worthwhile contribution toward understanding in its field; for example, Wright Howes' U.S.iana or Henry R. Wagner and Charles L. Camp's The Plains and the Rockies. Even so, no one "reads" a bibliography; it is, simply, a record, perhaps embellished with some explanatory comments. It is a summary of all material known to be available on a subject, containing in it a chronological and literary history.
Traditional print bibliographies can be cumbersome, even unwieldy. They can be so complex that some questions asked of them can be answered only by constantly flipping back and forth in the volume. Electronic bibliographies are increasingly common, but often little known by potential users. They are useful tools for those who are used to browsing, or for finding specific pieces of information. But to use them to compile sets of data for supporting arguments, or for making meaningful evaluations of scholarly questions, requires a prodigious amount of data-gathering. For example, Stephen J. Pyne (1998) in How the Canyon Became Grand, used the 1990 print edition of this bibliography to collate statistics about the kinds of publications on the Grand Canyon that have been produced over the past century and a half. All this information had to be tallied by eye and hand, even if it was collected onto a computer database.
Which brings us again to Elliott Coues. His bibliographical work is all the more remarkable when we realize that his level of achievement was reached at a time when things were done by hand. I know how long it took to compile the first edition of the present bibliography on index cards, and how long it took to retype it several times (eventually into an electronic file in the late 1980s). I know how long it took to reorganize the bibliography from the second edition into the present product. Many aspects of the bibliography were done first by hand, then with the benefit of computers. And looking at Coues' far more productive work, I am impressed.
The collation and arrangement of references is mundane work, certainly, and only one who is intrigued by the printed word and by the rewards of reassembling information will find it interesting. After all, it still does take a living, breathing person to make evaluations of material to be added, skipped, elaborated, revised, or corrected for the bibliography. Coues (1897) admitted for himself, and probably for all bibliographers, that "It takes a sort of an inspired idiot to make a good bibliographer . . . ." He called bibliography "a necessary nuissance, and a horrible drudgery that no mere drudge [can] perform", and likened the drive to do it to "the appetite of a gambler or dipsomaniac".
I do not doubt that Elliott Coues would have thought the computer a savior of bibliographers. The work of identification, evaluation, and compilation still has to be done, but the ways in which value-added products can be derived from the main body of bibliographical data significantly amplify the usefulness of the bibliography. They very probably also increase the number of people who are likely to use it.
Looking back to 1981, when the original Grand Canyon-Lower Colorado River Bibliography was published, I never gave a computerized version a thought. In fact, all the draft and final lists well into the 1980s all were rolled through typewriters. Computers, then, were mostly batch-oriented mainframes, impractical to load up with millions of bytes of data just to sit and wait; most data were typed first onto punch cards and read as needed into the computer to be processed by programs loaded into it just for the job; interactive terminals were pokey contraptions with awful keyboards that had stiff, clunky keys; across murky, monochrome "CRT" screens data returned, noticeably character by character, from the core of the computer. And no one had one of these things at home! What became the Internet was embryonic, the limited domain of military consortia or hard-wired academics; it was still quite unknown to the world at large.
Even though this bibliography eventually was put into computerized files, it still remained as "flat files" in word-processing formats, just as if it had been typed onto paper; only then it was far easier to edit. Only when it was converted for use on this Internet Web site did it finally come into being as a kind of database.
I admit that it is difficult for me to rely on something other than five centuries of book production technology and the distinctly diverse ways in which books are read and used. The ephemeral nature of the Internet is scary to an archivally-oriented person such as myself, despite the unspecific promises of a world of data at one's fingertips. Now I remind myself that this is no longer a traditional book. For the first time, a user of this bibliography can find a fragment of something, or all the occurrences of a phrase, or things from a given year or range of years—quickly. Heaven knows this has been a boon for me. I can refresh my memory by searching electronically for those bits and pieces of trivia that lead to and hold together the important things. I can find those things that aggravate because I can remember only a special word or two. Before the ability to search electronically, I could depend solely on serendipity, all the while gnawed by the knowledge that "it's in there somewhere".
The incentive for an electronic bibliography is no longer the pressure of ensuring unaltered survivability of static compilations of information. It now provides the future with a continually updated format, unencumbered by the methodological "edition" and the physical constraints of line lengths, paragraphs, page numbering, and bindings. It can be reused and improved in ways we probably cannot imagine now. I do find it difficult to imagine that this bibliography will be so useful that new compilers will continue it. It may well turn out to be only an indulgement of the turn of the twentieth to twenty-first centuries. Even Coues abandoned the work of bibliography, "forcibly divorced", he said, from a mania with which he could no longer keep pace.
I wonder how little Elliott Coues' bibliographies are referred to today. To my knowledge they exist only in print format. They are outdated by the passage of time, but I think a more accurate term is "outpaced". Bibliographies are, by their nature, infrequently used; and when used, rarely cited. They are, however, always present for those who find the need to use them; they do preserve past understandings of different subjects and the resources known to be available at the time. That also is the nature of libraries as they have functioned for centuries; one of their principal purposes is to keep information for such time, however infrequent, someone needs it.
Although even the role of libraries in research and everyday life is rapidly changing in an increasingly electronic world, I still like to think back to a book I sought in a library a few years ago. Privately published in 1815 by its author, Samuel Constantine Rafinesque, this copy had been sent unsolicited to the greatest naturalist of the day, Georges Cuvier, in France, whose ownership stamp appears on its title-page. Sometime later it was sent to America. When a colleague and I retrieved the book in 1988, the folded signatures were still unopened and had to be cut. This was not a "rare book" purposely left untouched for its monetary value to collectors who revel in the unopened volume; the unopened signatures meant only that neither Cuvier nor anyone between 1815 and 1988 had read this copy. Even unused, a volume in a library is there to be used. This incident, among many others, has guided my philosophy that when providing a research tool one cannot presuppose the value of anything to individuals now or in the future.
We may be overwhelmed by the preponderance of data available to us today. It is ultimately the result of an increasing population—individuals all—who in one way or another are justifying or validating their existence by producing written records—"treasures and trash" alike as Grand Canyon Librarian Louise Hinchliffe (1990) summarized them. Books, serials, periodicals, and ephemera all carry the cachet of publishers, too, which in turn authenticates their reasons for existence. A bibliography is a record of all such things.
Even though every good intention has been held to make this bibliography comprehensive, pragmatically it is not. The nature of bibliography lends itself to incompleteness. The very fact that three editions of this bibliography have been published, each of which include many citations that should have been found for earlier editions, testifies that the obscurity of references is due both to the diverse and broadly scattered material that must be found, often serendipitously, and to the growth of and improvements to the bibliographer's methods and resources. In 1878, Elliott Coues wrote in his unfinished master bibliography of North American ornithology, "Bibliography is never finished, and always more or less defective, even on ground long gone over" (Coues, 1878, p. 569). And, speaking of himself, but which the prospective bibliographer can heed, too, he concluded (p. 569), "The writer would be accurate; yet he feels the weight of Stevens's satire: ‘If you are troubled with a pride of accuracy, and would have it taken out of you, print a catalogue.'" It is a recurring predicament of scholarly publishing, even if hardly ever admitted. Malacologist Henry Pilsbry (1949) had the courage to surrender: "If you want to learn how much you can overlook or forget, just write a book."
So indeed, even though it may always take "a sort of an inspired idiot to be a good bibliographer", the nature of bibliography, and the ways in which bibliographies are compiled and presented, are changing in very dramatic ways. I would like to think that in spite of shortcomings that may be seen in this work, this is a pioneering effort, among many more that are out there in the electric web of the Internet. It is a whole new Great Unknown (in the metaphorical tradition of John Wesley Powell). We may even be overwhelmed by the amount of information in the Internet today, however tenuously available, and discouraged by the amount of uncontrolled, unedited, unreviewed, and uncorroborated information. But in truth, the only thing that can absolutely overwhelm us is the absence of information.
Pilsbry, Henry A. 1949. Two overlooked synonyms. Nautilus, 63(1)(July):36.
CITATION FORMAT INFORMATIONEach citation contains several basic areas of information, explained below.
Johnson, George Alonzo
Powell, John Wesley
Alphabetization of author names follows a "one, two, many" scheme in order to accommodate published references that cite multiple authors with "et al." Multiple authors are listed alphabetically as a group regardless of the number of authors.
1. Smith, A. B. ["Smith"]
[All remaining citations are "Smith et al."]
The most usual convention for text citations of a multiple-author publication list only the first author's name followed by "et al." (see examples above). Thus, citations cited with an "et al." are grouped together. If all citations were listed strictly alphabetically, the above example would be listed in this order: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 3, 8.
For each author or unique combination of authors, citations are listed chronologically by year. Within each year, however, references are not necessarily chronological. Under "Anonymous", though, an attempt has been made to list citations chronologically within a year because of the large number of them.
"Anonymous" is used in place of an author's name when the article or publication has no by-line, even if other evidence provides the author's name to us. In that case, the author's name is given in square brackets. This is done this way in order to indicate the total amount of factual information which appears in the publication, without interpretation.
A year is usually listed here. If a publication was printed in parts in more than one year, its individually published parts are cited separately. When necessary to retain the citation as one, the first year is listed in the "date" field, and the year range is given within square brackets as a comment at the end of the citation. When underscores, "____", appear in this field, the information is lacking. "No Date" indicates that the publication has no stated date of publication; but when circumstantial or other indirect information provides the date or a date range, such information is added in square brackets as a comment at the end of the citation.
"____" and "No Date" items are listed before dated items to order to bring attention to them.
Part and Citation Number
Each number is unique. Every part of the bibliography is numbered, from 1 to 34 (see the Table of Contents). Every citation within a part is numbered consecutively beginning with 1. Thus, 21.1436 indicates Part 21 (Geology), no. 1436. An original plan was to consecutively enumerate the citations through the entire bibliography, from 1 to 20,000+, but sorted returns in an electronic format, and screen pauses on a browsing search, do not clearly indicate to which part the citation belongs; the prefixed part number resolves the problem.
In a few instances, a citation number will appear within the citation field, as part of a comment in square brackets. These are inserted for related, but separately published documents. For example, the abstract of a doctoral dissertation published in Dissertation Abstracts International will appear as an additional comment in the main entry for the dissertation itself. In other instances, separately published translation booklets accompanying an English-language publication, each usually with its own translators and sometimes with different imprints, are appended to the main entry for the publication.
In every instance, the title of an article or book is immutable. In this bibliography, italics convey the name under which the publication is most likely to be found in a library. Full, complex titles are cited unless special circumstances call for the use of an ellipsis (. . .), such as to omit lengthy lists of an author's academic credentials or scholarly affiliations printed on a title-page. In some instances where our citations are received through another authority who used an ellipsis, and we have not examined the title ourselves, we retain the ellipsis without remark. Where an ellipsis is actually a part of the title, we so indicate with an annotation to that effect. Little standardization has been employed in citing article and book titles in this bibliography, so as to maintain precision; an exception is the insertion or spelling out of "Volume" where such is necessary, and similar contextual changes. Typographical errors are denoted by the interjection or suffix "[sic]".
"U.S." is used as a prefix to titles that are from federal government agencies of the United States of America, whether or not "U.S." or "United States" is part of the name or title; for example, the Government Printing Office in Washington, D.C. is cited as "U.S. Government Printing Office", or the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is cited as "U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration". In some cases, for standardization "U.S." is used as a contraction in a serial title or agency name where "United States" is spelled out; for example, "U.S. National Academy of Sciences". However, in book and article titles "U.S." and "United States" are cited as they appear in the title; this includes variations of abbreviations, such as "USA" and "U.S.A."
City names in the place of publication are listed with the state in which they occur (for example, "St. George, Utah"); this is done to facilitate more ease of use among those who may be less well informed regarding American geographic locations. Exceptions are major world cities and certain frequently cited regional cities which, for pragmatic reasons, are listed just by the city name: Albuquerque (New Mexico), Chicago (Illinois), Denver (Colorado), Las Vegas (Nevada), Los Angeles (California), New York (New York), Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), Phoenix (Arizona), Salt Lake City (Utah), San Francisco (California), and Tucson (Arizona). Outside of the United States, with the exception of major world cities such as London and Paris, places of publication are listed as given in the publication.
Special bibliographical information, explanatory notes, or bibliographer's special comments are appended to the citation; these appear within [square brackets].
Cross-Index to GCNHA Monograph 8
Numbers within pointed brackets—such as >Mon. 8: 3-28<—indicate the page number on which the same citation appeared in the loose-leaf 1990 edition of the Grand Canyon–Lower Colorado River bibliography (Grand Canyon Natural History Association Monograph 8) and Supplement 1 (1993) to that edition. Pagination in that edition was consecutive within each of 12 parts, as well as within several separate sub-sections. The page numbers are as printed at the bottom of each page, thus ">Mon. 8: 3-28<", indicating page 3-28, refers to page 28 of Part 3. Other number styles reflect other portions of the bibliography; for example, ">Mon. 8: xxvii<" refers to a Roman-numeral page number or ">Mon. 8: Reviews-3<" refers to page 3 of the separately paginated "Reviews" section. Some section references are contracted here for aesthetic reasons—for example ">Mon. 8: 1-SS2-2<" refers to Part 1, Special Section 2, page 2. (In Monograph 8 this was an admittedly cumbersome and awkwardly citable page number that was printed on the page thus: "1-Special Section 2-2".)
The organization of parts of the bibliography has been completely changed from that of Monograph 8. Additionally, a citation listed in the present bibliography may have been transferred from another subject area of the bibliography. Many citations have been edited or corrected from the way they appeared in the earlier publications. Citations which have no numbers in pointed brackets have been added after the 1993 supplement was prepared.
CROSS-LISTINGS TO OTHER STANDARD REFERENTS
Several important annotated bibliographies of Americana are cross-listed in this bibliography. These titles were selected for the special bibliographical data they convey, or, in the case of Howes, which is only marginally annotated, because it is a standard list of publications to which scholars, booksellers, and other bibliographical users and researchers routinely and conveniently refer. Each of these other bibliographies is numerically organized; it is by these numbers that users unambiguously refer to publications in question.
This bibliography also includes cross-listings to several booksellers' catalogues, viz, Five Quail Books, Five Quail Books—West, and Guidon Books. These are important references to publications about this region because they are extensively annotated or, in the case of Guidon Books, an important early list of publications relating to this region. (In the fall of 1999 Five Quail Books—West reverted to its original name, Five Quail Books.)
The omission of other important bibliographies—for example, Yates and Marshall (The Lower Colorado River: A bibliography, 1974) and Powell (An Arizona gathering II, 1950-1969; an annotated bibliography, 1973)—is intentional because they are not annotated or have insufficient annotations to make a cross-listing to them meaningful as sources of more bibliographical information. This is solely a means of expediting a bibliographer's work. The information included in these other publications is nonetheless valuable because they relate to materials or regions not covered by the present bibliography. They provide additional worth through their existence as bibliographies; each is another bibliographer's historical perspective.
Bibliographies and Catalogues Cross-listed in This Bibliography
In the bibliography, cross-listed items are appended to the end of individual citations using the shortened forms listed in the left column below. This is followed by the numbered listing in the indicated publication. For example, FQ4:176 is no. 176 in Five Quail Books Catalogue Four.
FQ1 1987. Grand Canyon of Arizona and the Colorado River. Catalogue one. Spring Grove, Minnesota: Five Quail Books,  pp.
FQ2 1988. Western Americana—Colorado River—Grand Canyon—Explorations—Indians. Catalogue two. Spring Grove, Minnesota: Five Quail Books, 60 pp.
FQ3 1989. Western Americana—Colorado River—Grand Canyon. Catalogue three. Spring Grove, Minnesota: Five Quail Books,  pp.
FQ4 1990. Western Americana—Colorado River—Grand Canyon. Catalogue four. Spring Grove, Minnesota: Five Quail Books, 60 pp.
FQ5 1991. Western Americana; the Colorado River, the Grand Canyon of Arizona, the Colorado Plateau. Catalogue five. Spring Grove, Minnesota: Five Quail Books, 60 pp. and covers.
FQ5A 1991. Catalogue Five—Addenda. A potpourri of interesting river-canyon titles. Spring Grove, Minnesota: Five Quail Books, 4 pp.
FQ5B 1991. Mini-catalog 5-91: Southwestern Americana. Spring Grove, Minnesota: Five Quail Books, 16 pp.
FQ6 1992. Western Americana; the Colorado River, the Grand Canyon, the Colorado Plateau. Catalogue six. Spring Grove, Minnesota: Five Quail Books, 60 pp. and covers.
FQ7 1993. Western Americana; the Grand Canyon of Arizona, the Colorado River, the Colorado Plateau. Catalogue seven. Spring Grove, Minnesota: Five Quail Books, 60 pp.
FQ7A 1993. "Catalogue Seven – late arrivals", 6 pp.
FQ8 1994. Western Americana; the Grand Canyon of Arizona, the Colorado River, the Colorado Plateau. Catalogue eight. Spring Grove, Minnesota: Five Quail Books, 82 pp.
FQ8A 1994. "Addenda to Catalogue Eight", 8 pp.
FQ9 1995. Western Americana; the Grand Canyon of Arizona, the Colorado River, the Colorado Plateau. Catalogue nine. Spring Grove, Minnesota: Five Quail Books, 84 pp.
FQ9A 1995. Western Americana—The Grand Canyon of Arizona, the Colorado River, the Colorado Plateau. October 1995. Phoenix: Five Quail Books—West,  pp. on 4 leaves.
FQ10 1996. The Grand Cañon of the Colorado. Western Americana—Grand Canyon of Arizona—Colorado River—Colorado Plateau. Catalogue ten. Phoenix: Five Quail Books—West, 80 pp.
FQ10A 1996. Western Americana—The Grand Canyon of Arizona, the Colorado River, the Colorado Plateau. October 1996. Phoenix: Five Quail Books—West,  pp. on 4 leaves.
FQ11 1997. Western Americana—Grand Canyon of Arizona, Colorado River, Colorado Plateau. Catalogue eleven. Phoenix: Five Quail Books—West, 84 pp.
FQ11A 1997. Western Americana—The Grand Canyon of Arizona, the Colorado River, the Colorado Plateau. Summer 1997. Phoenix: Five Quail Books—West,  pp. on 4 leaves.
FQ11B 1997. Western Americana—The Grand Canyon of Arizona, the Colorado River, the Colorado Plateau. October 1997. Phoenix: Five Quail Books—West,  pp. on 4 leaves.
FQ12 1998. Western Americana—Grand Canyon of Arizona, Colorado River, Colorado Plateau. Catalogue twelve. Phoenix: Five Quail Books—West, 84 pp.
FQ12A 1998. Western Americana—The Grand Canyon of Arizona, the Colorado River, the Colorado Plateau. Summer 1998. Phoenix: Five Quail Books—West,  pp.
FQ12B 1998. Western Americana—The Grand Canyon of Arizona, the Colorado River, the Colorado Plateau. October 1998. Phoenix: Five Quail Books—West,  pp.
FQ13 1999. Western Americana—Grand Canyon of Arizona, Colorado River, Colorado Plateau. Catalogue 13. Phoenix: Five Quail Books—West, 80 pp.
FQ13A 1999. Western Americana—The Grand Canyon of Arizona, the Colorado River, the Colorado Plateau. Summer 1999. Phoenix: Five Quail Books—West,  pp.
KINDS OF CITATIONS
In the examples which follow here, primary entry names (authors) have been omitted for aesthetic reasons. A box (¨ ) is substituted for the citation number. Refer to Citation Format Information for specifics about the construction and contents of all parts of the bibliographical citation.
¨ Visitor's guide to Arizona's Indian reservations. Phoenix: Phoenix Books, 160 pp. (see pp. 70-83).
¨ The Pacific Coast scenic tour; from southern California to Alaska, the Canadian Pacific Railway, Yellowstone Park and the Grand Cañon. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 309 pp.
¨ Lasso the wind; away to the new West. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 266 pp. [See particularly Chapter 3, "A Colorado River Town I; Lake Havasu City, Arizona" (pp. 48-62), and Chapter 4, "A Colorado River Town II; Supai, Arizona" (pp. 63-75).]
[In the bibliography, these are listed under different authors. This series is used as an example for the number of editions with minor peculiar variants.]
¨ Desert river crossing: Historic Lee's Ferry on the Colorado River (foreword by Barry M. Goldwater). Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith, Inc.
¨ Desert river crossing: Historic Lee's Ferry on the Colorado River (foreword by Barry M. Goldwater. Santa Barbara, California, and Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith, Inc., "second printing, revised", 126 pp.
¨ Lee's Ferry; desert river crossing. Salt Lake City: Cricket Productions, revised, expanded, 168 pp. [Cover adds: "With a special section on Marble Canyon Lodge and House Rock Valley".]
¨ Lee's Ferry; desert river crossing (with contributions by C. Gregory Crampton). Salt Lake City and St. George, Utah: Tower Productions, revised [3rd] ed., 187 pp. [Cover adds: "Includes a special section on Marble Canyon Lodge"; same additional coverage also appeared in "second printing".]
[These examples are all listed in the bibliography under the same author (Hait, Pam).]
¨ Shifra Stein's day trips from greater Phoenix, Tucson and Flagstaff (Shifra Stein, ed.). Chester, Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press, 190 pp.
¨ Day trips from Phoenix, Tucson and Flagstaff (Shifra Stein, ed.). Chester, Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press, 2nd ed., 206 pp.
¨ Shifra Stein's day trips from Phoenix, Tucson and Flagstaff (Shifra Stein, ed.). Old Saybrook, Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press, 3rd ed., 224 pp.
¨ Shifra Stein's day trips from Phoenix, Tucson and Flagstaff; getaways less than 2 hours away (Shifra Stein, ed.). Old Saybrook, Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press, 4th ed., 219 pp.
¨ Shifra Stein's day trips from Phoenix, Tucson, and Flagstaff; getaways less than two hours away. Old Saybrook, Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press, 5th ed., 297 pp. (Shifra Stein's Day Trip Series.) [Title- and copyright pages indicate 4th edition; front cover and spine indicate 5th ed.]
Example 1—one editor
¨ (ed.) Physische Erdkunde. Nach den hinterlassenen manuscripten Oscar Peschel's; selbständig bearbeitet und herausgegeben von Gustav Leipoldt. Zweiter Band. Leipzig: Duncker und Humblot, 759 pp.
Example 2—more than one editor
¨ (eds.) The mapping of the American Southwest. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, 83 pp.
Compiled, Translated or Other Assembled Work
¨ (compiler) Grand Canyon deeps; words written by mortals and immortals. Modesto, California: Roadrunner Guidebooks and Research, 64 pp.
¨ (translator, ed.) Jacobo Sedelmayr: Missionary, frontiersman, explorer in Arizona and Sonora; four original manuscript narratives, 1744-1751. Tucson: Arizona Pioneers' Historical Society, 92 pp.
Separately Authored Work, or a Work Published Posthumously, Edited, or Otherwise Arranged or Contributed to by Another
Each of these examples is listed under the primary author as indicated on the title-page of the volume, with editorial data appended also on the authority of the title-page.
¨ Arizona, the Grand Canyon State; a state guide (completely revised by Joseph Miller; Henry G. Alsberg and Harry Hansen, eds.). New York: Hastings House, 4th ed., 532 pp.
¨ Blueprint for a new Japan; the rethinking of a nation (introduction by Jay Rockefeller; Louisa Rubinfein, translator; Eric Gower, ed.). Tokyo and New York: Kodansha International, 208 pp.
¨ The birth of the National Park Service; the founding years, 1913-33 (as told to Robert Cahn). Salt Lake City and Chicago: Howe Brothers, 340 pp.
¨ (eds.) Spectacular America (researched, compiled, and designed by Perpetua Press, Los Angeles). [No place]: Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, Inc., 132 pp. (see pp. 24-27).
Separately Authored Work with the Assistance or Contributions of Others
These examples are listed with the author names under which they are cited in the bibliography; this is for greater clarity here.
Anderson, Nancy K.
Anderson, L. Susan, and Ruffner, George A.
Ruder, Ruth L.
Separately Published Serial Volume
¨ Guidebook of the western United States. Part C. The Santa Fe route, with a side trip to the Grand Canyon of the Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 613, 194 pp.
¨ Reconnaissance geology between Lake Mead and
Davis Dam, Arizona-Nevada. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 347-E,
¨ A section of the Paleozoic formations of the
Grand Canyon at the Bass Trail. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper
131-B, pp. 23-73.
Paper or Separately Authored Chapter in an Edited Volume
¨ Cambrian. In: Robison, Richard A., and Teichert, Curt (eds.), Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part A. Introduction; fossilization (taphonomy), biogeography, and biostratigraphy. Boulder, Colorado: Geological Society of America; Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas, pp. A119-A166.
¨ The world is cleft. In: Woods, G. K. (compiler), Personal impressions of the Grand Cañon of the Colorado River near Flagstaff, Arizona, as seen through nearly two thousand eyes, and written in the private visitors' book of the world-famous guide Capt. John Hance, guide, story-teller, and path-finder. San Francisco: Whitaker and Ray Co., for G. K. Woods, Flagstaff, A. T., pp. 137-140, 143-146.
Paper, Chapter, or Section Within a Separately Published Serial Volume
This example is listed under the author of the paper, as published in an edited volume:
Beratan, Kathi K.
This example is listed under the author of the section, within a monograph by others:
Longwell, Chester R.
In a few instances, separately authored subsections are nested within a paper in turn within a separate volume, so the following citation style is used. This example is listed under the author of the subsection:
Ames, F. C.
Article or Paper Within a Periodical
Series numbers, where applicable, are included before the volume number:
¨ Geology of the east-central part of the Spring Mountain Range, Nevada. American Journal of Science, 5th Series, 17:326-341.
¨ [Review of] "Exploration of the Colorado River of the West and its Tributaries. Report to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. By J. W. Powell." Geological Magazine (London), new series, Decade 2, 3:365-370.
A published abstract has the suffix "[abstract]" added to the paper's title, except when "Abstracts" already appears as part of the volume's title. Citations of an abstract of a thesis or dissertation that was separately published in Masters Abstracts International or Dissertation Abstracts International is appended to the citation for the thesis or dissertation.
¨ Influence of secondary faults on the development of Grand Canyon topography [abstract]. Washington Academy of Sciences, Journal, 17:233-234.
¨ Drainage basin analysis used to distinguish regional geomorphic trends—eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, 12:84.
¨ Postmodern vistas: Landscape, photography, and tourism in the contemporary American West. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 389 pp. [Abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International, 58(7A):2709.]
There are many variations of titles of symposium proceedings, field guides, and other scholarly-meeting volumes—and about as many methods of citing them. This bibliography attempts to remain as faithful as possible to the ways in which the titles and additional publication data are written, rather than invent a standardized citation. This method may be more advantageous because some libraries may catalogue them in different ways which depend upon the skill of the cataloguers as well as the organizational schemes used in the library. In this manner, the actual title or data from the document can be referred to in such a way that the local librarian can examine it and determine how it might have been catalogued there.
Some such publications were more traditionally published, as separately citable, separately sold books that happen also to be symposia proceedings. Most, however, are quickly-produced documents with limited distribution, such as to the conference attendees. Such forms of "gray literature", while they are in turn cited in later publications, are especially problematical documents to those who try to find them. Listing them in a bibliography is as much a contextual approach as it is one of standardized cataloguing (and standardized citation) procedures.
Sometimes, the titles of a symposium as published reflect an "officially sanctioned language" with which all official transactions and published communications were spoken and published. For example, early meetings of the International Geological Congress used French as their official language; today it is English. Possibly, publications distributed under such sanctions may, in some libraries, be catalogued according to their published titles; others may catalogue them by a standard which conforms to the home-language while taking in a verbatim quotation of the specific title. Thus, for example, the Compte Rendu of the "Sixième Congrès International de Stratigraphie et de Géologie du Carbonifère" may be catalogued as "International Congress of Stratigraphy and Carboniferous Geology, 6th, Compte Rendu" or "Congrès International de Stratigraphie et de Géologie du Carbonifère, 6th, Compte Rendu", depending upon the cataloguing scheme.
The permutations seem endless. In the matter of a disclaimer, some citations have been taken on the authority of other researchers, whose citations may not be whole or precise; these have been cited in this bibliography in the best-adapted format. The following should be construed to be only examples; they do not necessarily encompass all such kinds of publications cited in this bibliography.
¨ Food habits and evolutionary relationships of the tassel-eared squirrel (Sciurus aberti). In: Steele, Michael A., Merritt, Joseph F., and Zegers, David A. (eds.), Ecology and evolutionary biology of tree squirrels; Proceedings of the International Colloquium on the Ecology of Tree Squirrels, Powdermill Biological Station, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 22-28 April 1994. Virginia Museum of Natural History, Special Publication 6, pp. 185-194.
[N.B.: In this example, the proceedings volume was published as a serial.]
¨ Lower Carboniferous calcareous foraminifera [sic]: Preliminary zonation and stratigraphic implications for the Mississippian of North America. Sixième Congrès International de Stratigraphie et de Géologie du Carbonifère. Sheffield 11th to 16th September 1967. Compte Rendu, 3:1129-1146.
¨ Preliminary foraminiferal correlations of early Carboniferous strata in the North American Cordillera. In: Streel, M., and Wagner, R. H. (eds.), Colloque sur la stratigraphie du Carbonifere. Université de Liège, pp. 327-348. (Les Congres et Colloques de l'Universite de Liege, Volume 55.)
¨ Who or what destroyed our megafauna? In: Boaz, Debra, Dornan, Michael, and Bolander, Susan (eds.), Proceedings of the Fossils of Arizona Symposium, Volume II, November 19, 1994, pp. 91-102.
¨ List of railroad lines followed by the excursion. In: Emmons, Samuel Franklin (ed.), Geological guide book of the Rocky Mountain excursion. Congrès Géologique International, Compte Rendu de la 5me Session, Washington, 1891. Washington: Imprimerie du Gouvernement [U.S. Government Printing Office], pp. 259-260. [5th International Geological Congress.]
¨ Relations of the plane of unconformity at the base of the Cambrian to terrestrial deposition in late Pre-Cambrian time. 12th International Geological Congress, Compte-Rendu, pp. 335-337.
¨ Digital image processing of airborne geophysical data for uranium-mineralized breccia pipes exploration in northwestern Arizona. 28th International Geological Congress, Abstracts, 2:248.
¨ Application of Landsat thematic mapper digital data to the exploration for uranium mineralized breccia pipes in northwestern Arizona. In: Rogers, Robert A. (chairperson), Proceedings of the Sixth Thematic Conference on Remote Sensing for Exploration Geology; Applications, technology, economics, Volume 1, pp. 239-248.
¨ The Cambrian of the Rocky Mountains and southwest deserts of the United States and adjoining Sonora Province, Mexico. 20th International Geological Congress, Mexico, El Sistema Cámbrico, su paleogeografía y al problema de su base. Symposium. Segundo Tomo. América del Norte, América del Sur, Oceania (prepared under direction of John Rodgers), pp. 529-661.
¨ Cambrian stratigraphic problems in the Four Corners area. In: Shelf Carbonates of the Paradox Basin Symposium. Four Corners Geological Society, 4th Field Conference, Guidebook, p. 21.
¨ Prehistoric overkill. In: Martin, P. S., and Wright, H. E., Jr. (eds.), Prehistoric extinctions: The search for a cause. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, pp. 75-180 (see pp. 92, 97). (International Association Quaternary Research, 8th Congress, Proceedings, Volume 6.)
¨ Evidence for deep water deposition of the Tapeats Sandstone, Grand Canyon, Arizona. In: Riper, Charles van, III, and Deshler, Elena T. (eds.), Proceedings of the Third Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau. U.S. National Park Service, Transactions and Proceedings Series, NPS/NRNAU/NRTP-97/12, pp. 215-228.
¨ The state of the System; an economic survey of the whole Devonian. In: McMillan, N. J., Embry, A. F., and Glass, D. J. (eds.), Devonian of the world; proceedings of the Second International Symposium on the Devonian System, Calgary, Canada. Volume I. Regional syntheses. Calgary, Alberta: Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, pp. 1-14.
¨ Greening of the Grand Canyon. National Passive Solar Conference, Proceedings, 20:98-102.
Citation of a Publication Printed in a Non-Latin Alphabet
The citation is quoted phonetically if possible, with a translation (if available) in square brackets. An annotation indicates the language in which it is written.
¨ Pegmatity. Tom 1. Granitnye, pegmatity. [Pegmatites. Volume 1. Granites, pegmatites.] Moscow and Leningrad: Akademii Nauk USSR, 712 pp. [In Russian.]
¨ Geologiya Arkheya Yugo-Zapada S.Sh.A. [Archean geology of the southwest U.S.A.] [abstract]. Mekhdunarodnii Geologicheskii Kongress, Trudy XVII Sesii, CCCP, 1937, Tom Vtoroi [17th International Geological Congress, USSR, 1937, Volume 2], p. 275. [In Russian.]
¨ The earliest Cambrian vase-shaped microfossils of Fangxian County, Hubei Province. Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Bulletin, no. 13, pp. 87-107, 3 plates. [In Chinese. Title from English-language summary on pp. 104-105.]
¨ National parks in U.S.A. and our country. Journal of Geography (Tokyo Geographical Society), 45(528):98-99. [In Japanese; title from English-language contents page.]
¨ [Grand Canyon National Park.] Cedar City, Utah: Blackner Card Co.,  pp. [In Japanese.]
¨ Gurando Kyanion [Grand Canyon]. [Grand Canyon, Arizona]: Grand Canyon Natural History Association,  pp. [An illustrated book on the Grand Canyon, in Japanese.]
Other items are cited in an arbitrary format designed to list the available information, as in various citations for videotapes, films, slide sets, etc.
¨ Grand Canyon by trail; a visual guide to the experience of hiking the inner wonders of the Grand Canyon. (Narrated by Stewart Aitchison and Mike Whelan). Cottonwood, Arizona: North Star Productions. 32:00.
¨ Kostelanatz concert. London: BBC, 16-mm black & white film with sound, playing time 27:00. [André Kostelanatz and the Philharmonic Orchestra. Includes "On the Trail" from Ferde Grofé's "Grand Canyon Suite"; with three additional works by other composers.]
¨ John Wesley Powell and the Colorado River. Lyons Falls, New York: Educational Images, 76-frame color filmstrip with audio cassette.
¨ The Grand Canyon: A view from space. Palo Alto, California: Synoptic Views. [Image processed from U.S. Geological Survey data tapes, by Environmental Research Institute of Michigan.]
¨ Grand Canyon 1991 (Lawrence Kasdan, director; Lawrence Kasdan, Charles Okum, Michael Grillo, producers; Lawrence Kasdan, Meg Kasdan, writers). Twentieth Century Fox Film Corp., 14 reels of 35-mm 14 on 7 (ca. 12,060 ft.), color.
¨ Lee's Ferry to Glen Canyon Dam; topographic map. Flagstaff, Arizona: Catch and Release Calendars, with the cooperation of Ray Larkey, 1 sheet, scale 1:24,000, with fishing and lodging information on reverse. [Map.]
¨ Scenic Grand Canyon National Park screen saver and wallpaper (images by Gary Ladd). Softstuff, CD-ROM, 33 images (PC- or Macintosh-compatible).
This example is from Part 33. "Other" Grand Canyons; postcards are not normally cited in this bibliography:
¨ [Postcard] "Waimea Canyon. A spectacular view of the magnificent `Grand Canyon of the Pacific' on the island of Kauai". Aiea, Hawaii: Island Heritage Publishing, no. 99-880.
Internet citations are excluded from this bibliography. At this time, documents posted on the World Wide Web and other electronically accessible resources, as well as the sites at which they are posted, are too ephemeral to guarantee that they will remain accessible as listed. Until such time that centralized electronic archives are widespread and reliable, Internet postings will be overlooked.
SPECIAL NOTE ABOUT MISSING INFORMATION
This bibliography is always a work in progress. In a few places, informational parts of a citation include an underscore, thus: __________. This means that the information is missing. Nevertheless, enough information is present to warrant including the citation in this bibliography. Because the compilers have yet to find the missing information, users who have access to the information are encouraged to pass it along, with the thanks of the compilers and the Grand Canyon Association.
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